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English Language Acquisition - Proficiency Levels



ENTERING:
  • Limited communication in English
  • Limited or no receptive or expressive vocabulary
  • Only isolated words and expressions produced
  • Limited or no understanding of English structure
  • Limited or no understanding of English phonology
  • Little or no experience with reading of visual symbols (depends on age group)
  • Only operates in the concrete
  • Unable to understand standardized tests

BEGINNING:

  • Limited ability to communicate in English
  • Limited receptive or expressive vocabulary
  • Use of some phrases
  • Incoherent sentences produced
  • Little understanding of English structure & sound system
  • Little experience with reading of visual symbols
  • Understands concrete concepts
  • Understands about 25% of standardized tests

DEVELOPING:

  • Some communicative abilities in English
  • Some receptive and expressive vocabulary
  • Some complete sentences with errors
  • Some understanding of the English structure & sound system
  • Some experience with reading visual symbols
  • Standardized test scores are below grade level

EXPANDING:

  • Similar native communicative abilities in English
  • Some receptive and expressive vocabulary
  • Some complete sentences with errors
  • Good understanding of the English structure & sound system
  • Some experience with reading visual symbols
  • Understand concrete concepts and at times understands abstract ideas
  • Standardized test scores are below grade level

BRIDGING:

  • Almost native-like communicative abilities in English
  • Developing receptive and expressive vocabulary
  • Complete sentences for developmental age
  • Good Understanding of English structure
  • Occasional errors
  • Well-produced phonetic sounds
  • Advanced Decoding skills
  • Well-developed literal comprehension skills
  • Understands concrete and abstract concepts 
  • Mostly operates in the abstract
  • Standardized tests still below grade level, but closer than that of Intermediate


COMMON ACRONYMS


Related to ESL Programs & Students:

BICS = Basic Interpersonal Communications Skills
CALP = Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
ELL = English Language Learner
ELD = English Language Development
ESL = English as a Second Language
ESOL= English to Speakers of Other Languages
LEP = Limited English Proficiency
CLD = Culturally & Linguistically Diverse
HLS = Home Language Survey
NES = Non-English Speaker
FES = Fluent English Speaker
LES = Limited English Speaker
TESOL = Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

LIEP = Language Instruction Educational Program